Bay of Bengal: Everything about it

Situated in the realm of geographic splendor, there exists a majestic water body known as the Bay of Bengal. This place touches the shores of India on its western and northwest ends, as it is bordered by the land of Bangladesh to its north and Myanmar to the east. If we talk about the south, it gracefully extends its reach from the tranquil Sangaman Kanda in Sri Lanka to the farthest reaches of Sumatra in Indonesia.


The Bay of Bengal, with its grandeur, stands as a testament to the interconnectedness of nations through the ages. This place serves as a convergence point for global trade. India finds itself in a unique position, bridging the vast gap between the Western lands and the distant realms of the East. To its west and southwest lie the enchanting Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean respectively. The Bay of Bengal presents a gateway to boundless possibilities.

The Bay of Bengal boasts a broad continental shelf, providing a nurturing environment for a diverse range of marine life. However, as it extends southwards, the bay’s features transform. Do you know how? The gradient slopes grace its northwest, north, and northeast perimeters are adorned by canyons, and these canyons are carved by the mightiest rivers. Among these, the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Andhra, Mahadevan, Krishna, and Godavari canyons stand out in terms of their grandeur and significance. We can say without a doubt, that the Bay of Bengal is an epitome of mystique and allure. It weaves a tale of natural wonders and historical significance that continues to capture the imagination of those who venture near its illustrious shores and who have this curiosity to learn about the hidden mysteries a place offers.

Formation of the Bay of Bengal

During the Cretaceous epoch’s onset roughly 145 million years ago, Earth underwent a transformative phase. This transformation was with respect to reshaping its contours. The colossal landmass known as Gondwana underwent fragmentation, resulting in the emergence of diverse geographical features. This period of transformation, which marked the demise of dinosaurs, also laid the foundation for the creation of the Bay of Bengal. Approximately 130 million years in the past, rapid shifts in the Earth’s tectonic plates orchestrated the detachment of India and Antarctica from Gondwana. This division transpired along a fissure, strategically positioned between the eastern part of India and Antarctica.

In the course of time, as these small islands embarked on separate trajectories, successive outpourings of molten lava on either side of the division fostered sediment accumulation and eventual solidification. This intricate process culminated in the genesis of the Enderby Basin and, thereafter, it resulted in the emergence of what we now know as the Bay of Bengal. 

Have you ever wondered who owns the Bay of Bengal?

Bay of Bengal

Since this place borders so many other countries, this question might have hit you. Well, it is a part of the territory of India. The coastal regions of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu in India are bordered by the Bay of Bengal. The eastern military command of India is headquartered in Kolkata. It was a significant port city that once served as the capital during the British-India era. Notably, two of India’s bustling harbours, namely Chennai and Vizag, are strategically positioned along this bay. Besides, the Bay of Bengal holds the distinction of being the world’s deepest bay. It has a remarkable depth of 4,694 meters or approximately 15,400 feet.

Do you know what sets the Bay of Bengal apart? It is its propensity for recurring cyclonic disturbances. The climate here is characterized by increased precipitation, sluggish and humid winds, and the presence of warm air currents. Even the water here is hot, though fresh. 

A Marine Ecosystem

Bay of Bengal

The Earth has 64 big ocean areas, and one of them is the Bay of Bengal. It’s a very beautiful place when it comes to nature. The place is adorned with lots of trees, water paths, coral homes, spots where rivers meet the sea, and big areas where animals and fish are born. In the sea, there’s a snake called Kerilia Jerdonii, which is also in stories from Hindu beliefs. Along the coasts, there are special places where animals are safe, and these areas are like their homes. Some animals, like the Olive ridley and leatherback turtles, are in danger of disappearing. On the beaches near the Bay of Bengal, you can find a pretty seashell called the Glory of Bengal Cone. The most famous beach where you can find these shells is Digha Beach in West Bengal. So when you visit this place, do not forget to get one for you.

Big amounts of oil and natural gas are found under the water in the Bay of Bengal, close to places where the Mahanadi and Godavari rivers meet the sea. The way the ground is under the Bay is similar to how the ground is under the Indus basin and the southern part of India. There are a lot of hydrocarbons found deep in the Bay. This is because every year, the rivers bring down more than 100 million tons of tiny pieces of earth and put them on the seabed. Due to this a lot of carbon gets stored there.

Is the Bay of Bengal another Bermuda Triangle?

Some people compare the Bay of Bengal to the Bermuda Triangle because it’s shaped like a triangle, and there are many ships that have sunk in its deep waters. A long time ago, in 1850, a big American ship called Brig Eagle sank in this bay. It was carrying Baptist missionaries who were going to India. Strong storms like typhoons and cyclones made two other ships, the Bark and the Euterpe, sink in 1875. In the year 1940, a special kind of ship called SS Automedon, which carried cold things, was bombed by the German navy. It sank into the water near a place called Sumatra. There were more ships that sank during the World War. Ships like HMS Hermes and SS Indus sank because they were attacked with bombs. In 1971, a submarine from Pakistan named PNS Ghazi also sank near a place called Visakhapatnam. People aren’t completely sure why it happened but it is what it is. Hence, this reference. 

Read More, 10 Best Places To Visit In India During Winter

Important Facts about Bay of Bengal:

The Bay of Bengal is located in the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean. It is bordered by India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Here are some key facts about the Bay of Bengal:

  1. Size: The area of Bay of Bengal is approximately 2.17 million square kilometers (839,000 square miles) which makes it one of the largest bodies of water in the world.
  2. Depth: The average depth of this Ocean is around 2,600 meters (8,500 feet). The deepest point of this sea reaches approximately 4,260 meters (13,980 feet) in the central part.
  3. Islands: The Bay of Bengal has many islands, including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which belong to India. The Sundarbans Delta is also here which is shared by India and Bangladesh.
  4. Weather and Climate: The region has a tropical climate with warm temperatures year-round. The cyclones come here, especially during the monsoon season (May to November).
  5. Marine Life: The Bay of Bengal is home to a wide range of marine life like dolphins and whales.
  6. Economic Importance: This bay is very important for the economies of the countries that border it, supporting fishing industries, shipping routes, and offshore oil and gas exploration.
  7. Biodiversity Hotspot: The Sundarbans mangrove forest is one of the largest mangrove ecosystems in the world and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is home to diverse flora and fauna, including the Bengal tiger.
  8. Historical Significance: The Bay of Bengal has been a significant maritime trade route throughout history, connecting South Asia with Southeast Asia and beyond. It has witnessed the rise and fall of ancient civilizations, including those of the Indus Valley and the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta.

I Hope you like all the information about Bay of Bengal here. We researched and curated this information. If you have more knowledge about this topic, you can share with us.