In Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, Jammu is the winter capital and the largest city of Jammu district. The city of Jammu is situated on the banks of the Tawi River, with an area of 26.64 km², surrounded by the Himalayas in the north and the northern plains in the south. Known as the city of temples for its ancient shrines and Hindu temples, Jammu is the most visited place in the state.
Jammu city shares its borders with the Samba district. According to the people living near there, Jammu was named after its founder Raja Jambulochan. The region is believed to have been ruled in the 9th century.
According to the local tradition there, this place is considered to be 3000 years old, but historians do not agree with this. Jammu city has bumpy ridges of low elevation on the Shivalik hills. It is bounded by the Shivalik Range to the north, east and southeast, while the Trikuta Range surrounds it to the northwest. It is about 600 km from the national capital, New Delhi. The official language here is Urdu. And the other local languages are Dogri, Hindi and Punjabi.
According to the belief of many historians and local people, Jammu was founded by King Jambulochan in the 16th century BC. Named it Jambupura which later changed to Jammu. Raja Jambulochan was the younger brother of King Bahulochan. Bahulochan built the Bahu Fort on the banks of river Tawi and Jambulochan settled the city of Jambupura. The king once arrived at a place on the banks of the river Tawi, where he saw a lion and a goat drinking water together at the same ghat. Both animals went their own way after drinking water. The king was surprised and left the idea of hunting and reached out to his companions and told the whole story in detail. Everyone said that this place will be full of peace and harmony where lion and goat are drinking water together. Then he ordered that a fort should be built at this place and the city should be settled near it. The name of the city was called Jambupura or Jambunagar and later became Jammu. Even today the Bahu Fort is a historical and scenic place. The name of the city is also mentioned in the Mahabharata. Evidence of this Jammu city being a part of the Harappan civilization has also been found after archaeological excavations at Akhnoor, 32 km from Jammu city. Remains of Maurya, Kushan, Kushanshah and Gupta dynasties have also been found in Jammu. After 70 AD, this region was ruled by aphthylitis and ruled from Kapis and Kabul.
He was succeeded by the Kushano-Hephthalite dynasty, who held the authority from 545 to 70 AD. Subsequently, from 70 AD to the beginning of the 11th century, the royal dynasty ruled, which was subdued by the subordinates of Ghaznavi. The mention of Jammu is also found in the records of Timur's conquests. The region saw a change of power once again with the invasions of the Sikhs and the Mughals, and eventually the British Raj came under control. Here the rule of the Dev dynasty was bhiraha from 60 AD to 180 AD. Then the city was isolated from other Indian cities and was trailed by them. After that the Dogra rulers came and the city of Jammu regained its lost aura and pride. He built huge temples and pilgrimages here and got old places renovated, as well as many educational institutions. The city progressed a lot during that period. Dogra rule led to the rule of Jammu in the 19th century under the control of Maharaja Ranjit Singh ji and thus Jammu became a part of the Sikh Empire. Maharaja Ranjit Singh appointed Gulab Singh as the ruler of Jammu. But this rule did not last long and after the demise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh Empire weakened and only after the rule of Maharaja Dalip Singh came under the control of the British army and Dalip Singh was taken to England as per company orders. But the British Raj did not have enough resources to fight in the mountains at that time due to the right to control many parts of Punjab.
Therefore, he considered Maharaja Gulab Singh as the most powerful ruler of the northern region of the Sutlej River, the ruler of Jammu and Kashmir. But in return, he took ? 65 lakh cash from Maharaj. This cash payment was considered valid due to Maharaja being the former vassal of the Sikh Empire and was also under the obligations of this treaty. Thus Maharaja Gulab Singh is revered as the founder of Jammu and Kashmir.
The festivals of Jammu best defines the culture here.
This festival marks the arrival of spring which is celebrated in a big and predominantly name Makar Sankranti. In different states of India, it is celebrated with the names Lohri, Bhogali-Bihu, Khichdi, Pongal etc. In Punjab and Jammu region it is celebrated as Lohri. On this day, a wave of happiness runs across the region. Thousands of people take a holy dip in the rivers and bathe and have Havan and Yagna in temples. In villages and urban areas also, this festival is considered to be of special importance for the parents of a newly married couple or a newborn child. A special dance balcony is also performed on this occasion. The boys are seen dancing on the streets in the procession etc., with colorful paper and flowers decorated with flowers, and see the breathtaking scene there. On this occasion, new life is communicated in the entire Jammu region.
The name Baisakhi is derived from Vaishakh, the month of Vikram Samvat. Baisakhi is a major festival here. Every year on the occasion of Cancer Sankranti, this festival is celebrated across the country with different names, such as Bohag-Bihu or Rangali-Bihu, etc. This festival is celebrated in Punjab and Jammu region under the name Baisakhi. This festival is celebrated as Sasayotsav i.e. harvesting festival and is considered to have special significance for marriage etc.
3. JHEELI MELA
The festival is celebrated in honor of a local farmer, Baba Jeetu, who thought it better to die in front of the local landlord by succumbing to the wrong demand to distribute his hard-earned crop. He killed himself in Jhiri village, which is about 14 km from Jammu city. There are many legends of recognition of Baba and his devotees, which many people from North India gather here.
There are many more festivals like bahu mela, chaetra chaudas, purmandal mela, and nauratri are also famous for there local people.
Jammu is famous for its natural beauty places including ancient temples, Hindu pilgrimages, Mubarak Mandi Mahal, Amar Mahal which has now become a museum, gardens and forts. There are two big and famous Hindu shrines here: the Amarnath cave and the Vaishno Devi cave, which attracts millions of travelers every year. The main stop for both of them becomes Jammu.
1. VAISHNO DEVI CAVE
Katra is situated near Jammu, from where the foot-climbing of Vaishno Devi begins. This cave is 1400 meter on the Trikuta mountain. It is located at the height of where the sacred cave of Maa Vaishno Devi is located. The distance from Jammu city to Katra is only 30 km and from there the climb to the cave is 13 km. This cave is 30 meters. Long and only 1.5 meters high. At the end of the closed cave are placed three pindis symbolizing the form of Mother, which are the emblem of Mahakali, Mahalakshmi and Mahasaraswati Devi respectively. These three goddesses came together as Vaishno Devi to suppress the sinner named Bhairon. The pilgrims travel 13 km long in the trolleys from Katra below and along with Mata Jayakare Ghosh.
Puramandal, also known as Chhota Kashi, is located about 35 km from Jammu city. It is an ancient pilgrimage place with numerous temples of Shiva and other deities. A three-day fair is held here on the occasion of Shivaratri and the city is crowded and crowded.
3. BHAERAV MANDIR
Vaishno Devi had dropped the head of the Bhairon on another hill above the cave. After coming to the mother's shelter, the simple-hearted mother forgave her and said that my journey to the cave will be completed only when the pilgrims thereafter also visit the Bhairon temple. Most of the travelers visit the Bhairon temple directly above and only after seeing the cave of the mother, they descend straight down and complete the journey.
4. NANDINI WILDLIFE SANCTUREY
Nandini Wildlife Sanctuary is known for different species of pheasants and other birds, where wildlife species have been protected by enclosing dense forests. It is famous for its pheasants and other similar bird species, some of which are special: myna, Indian peacock, blue rock pigeon, red junglefowl, cheer egent and chakor. The sanctuary is spread over about 37 km2 and there are also a large number of species of cattle. Among these species, wild animals also include leopard, wild boar, rhesus monkey, bharal and black langur.