Canada’s Hudson Bay has coastlines in Ontario, Quebec, Manitoba, and Nunavut. It is a fairly sizable body of saline water, measuring over 470,000 square miles. Ontario, Quebec, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Nunavut, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Minnesota are drained in part by Hudson Bay. The Hudson Bay has a maximum depth of 890 feet and an average depth of 330 feet. It freezes from mid-December to mid-June. The Bay of Bengal is the largest bay in the world, with Hudson Bay coming in second. At its northernmost point, Hudson Bay is connected to the Atlantic Ocean by Hudson Strait.
Let’s check out some of the interesting facts about it:
1. Named after Henry Hudson
Sir Henry Hudson, an English adventurer who first discovered the bay in 1610 on board his ship Discovery, gave the bay its name. Henry Hudson and his crew were compelled to spend the winter at James Bay’s southern point when Hudson Bay froze up. Beaver pelt trafficking started as soon as the Nonsuch arrived in Hudson Bay in 1668. This would ultimately result in the founding of the Hudson’s Bay Company, an organization that is still in operation today. The bay’s coasts have been inhabited for a very long time, according to archaeological data. Many of the campsites that have been excavated are located far from the actual, retreating coastline.
2. Divided into three bands
The area can be divided into three bands that roughly run from northwest to southeast: the Coastal Hudson Bay Lowland, which is a narrow band along the northern coast, the Hudson Bay Lowland, which is a wider band that extends to a point slightly south of the Ekwan River, and the James Bay Lowland, which encompasses all other southern and eastern lands and accounts for close to 50% of the total Lowlands area. During the most recent glacier, the entire region was covered in ice, and the peatlands have accumulated over the past 10,000 years.
3. Cliffs Made of geologically old Precambrian
A group of islands and cliffs made of geologically old Precambrian (more than 540 million years old) crystalline and sedimentary rocks border the eastern shore at a distance of around 200 miles (300 km). Only one more group of islands may be found at the bay’s entrance.
4. Low average temperature
The Hudson Bay has low average temperatures all year round, ranging from -5 to -9 degrees Celsius. They can sometimes reach 10 degrees Celsius when it’s warmer. The Hudson Bay’s waters have a salinity that is typically lower than the ocean’s. The Ottawa Islands and the Belcher Islands are just two of the islands that may be found in Hudson Bay. Nunavut encompasses all of the islands. Only about 12 settlements, some of which served as trading posts when they were first established in the 1600s and 1700s, can be located on Hudson Bat’s coasts. Inuit and Cree’s people now make up a large portion of many.
5. Sink of Many Rivers
The Kazan River, Thelon River, Dubawnt River, Hayes River, Nelson River, Churchill River, Winisk River, and Severn River are just a few of the many rivers that feed into Hudson Bay. Some people think that a meteor impact is what gave Hudson Bay its shape. Molluscs, starfish, and sea urchins, as well as fish like halibut, cod, arctic plaice, and salmon, can be found in Hudson Bay. The Hudson Bay region is home to polar bears, killer whales, walruses, dolphins, and dolphins. Around 200 different bird species, including crows, owls, snow geese, swans, sandpipers, and ducks, have been identified as spending some time of the year on the shores or islands of Hudson Bay.
6. Hudson Bay’s water is not part of Manitoba
The water that borders Manitoba’s coastline is not thought of as being a part of Manitoba. It is seen as belonging to Nunavut. In the summer, some 50,000 beluga whales make Hudson Bay their home. The arctic population is more at risk as Hudson Bay’s annual period of frozen water lengthens. The polar bears hunt seals from atop the frozen ice.
7. Played a significant part in the early growth of Canada
After it was discovered that the bay offered a direct path to the fur resources of the North West, the bay played a significant part in the early growth of Canada. The French made a concerted effort to drive the English out of the harbor between 1682 and 1713. In their voyages by land (1686), Pierre de Troyes and Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville both experienced brief successes. The bay, however, was firmly in the English hands following the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, and once the HBC merged with the North West Company in 1821, it started to serve as the main conduit into the interior.
8. Control of the bay was given to Canada in 1870
Rupert’s Land was given to Canada in 1870, and with it came control of the bay and its watershed. Since then, it has been lightly populated and has lost much of its significance as a route for transportation. Indian and Inuit tribes who live off of fishing and hunting continue to be the main inhabitants.
9. Churchill, Manitoba
At the mouth of the Churchill River, Churchill, Manitoba, with a population of 1089 in 1996, is the largest community. Although Churchill and Mooseonee, Ontario are connected to the interior by rail, less is really done to take advantage of their potential as saltwater ports. The bay is still largely the same as it formerly was and has been designated a mare clausum for conservation purposes (“closed sea”).
10. Temperature Variation at Hudson Bay
The area’s climate is heavily influenced by the water’s surface. Temperatures are extremely low in January and February because pack ice in the bay prevents any warming influence on the air. In May, the ice starts to melt, and by June, when there is more cloud cover and fog, it has completely disappeared. Due to the entry of fresh water in July and August, the water temperature can increase by up to 10°C. The bay’s waters produce heat and moisture in October and November, bringing snowfall and rain showers. In June, July, and August, fog is most common because warm air condenses over chilly water. With the exception of the summer, winds are consistently high, reaching 110 km/h and even 150 km/h in the fall.
Read More, Best Places to Visit in Canada
These are the best things that you should know about Hudson Bay, Canada. If you are planning to go to Hudson Bay in Canada, then remember to learn more about this place.